Nigeria Table of Contents All evidence suggests the early settlement of Nigeria millennia before the spread of agriculture 3, years ago, and one day it probably will be possible to reconstruct the high points of this early history. Although archaeological research has made great strides in identifying some major developments, comparatively little archaeological work has been undertaken. Consequently, it is possible only to outline some of the early history of Nigeria. The earliest known example of a fossil skeleton with negroid features, perhaps 10, years old, was found at Iii Ileru in western Nigeria and attests to the antiquity of habitation in the region. Stone tools, indicating human settlement, date back another 2, years. Microlithic and ceramic industries were developed by pastoralists in the savanna from at least the fourth millennium B. To the south, hunting and gathering gradually gave way to subsistence farming on the fringe of the forest in the first millennium B. The cultivation of staple foods, such as yams, later was introduced into forest clearings. The stone ax heads, imported in great quantities from the north and used in opening the forest for agricultural development, were venerated by the Yoruba descendants of neolithic pioneers as “thunderbolts” hurled to earth by the gods.
Neolithic Axe: Antiquities
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South Western Native American Artifacts and Ancient to Prehistoric, worldwide arrow heads and colectables.
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Topic: Axe head Identification
Overview Flakes and Cores Stone tools were made by taking a piece of stone and knocking off flakes, a process known as “knapping. Or alternatively, big flakes should be thought of as the cores for little ones struck from them. Don’t worry about it. Both cores and flakes were used all through the stone age, but there was increasing emphasis on flake tools as time passed and techniques for controlled flaking improved.
Percussion and Pressure Earliest stone tools, and those in which the stone knapper had least control over how the stone would break, were made by percussion flaking, that is, whacking a stone with something —usually another stone, appropriately called a “hammer stone. Even for the best percussion knappers, however, it was difficult to hit the target stone with perfect precision.
Perhaps no tools are more closely linked to the founding of America than the axe and its smaller sibling, the hatchet. Hand-forged axes of cast iron with heads weighing seven pounds were swung by pioneers and Colonists, who used the versatile tool to clear land for crops and build their homes.
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General characteristics Materials and techniques Until the 16th and 17th centuries, when European cultures appeared upon the scene, Oceanian cultures maintained various forms of Neolithic technology. The only exception was in the northwest of New Guinea, where the people living around Geelvink Bay Teluk Cenderawasih imported very small quantities of metal from the Indonesians of the Moluccas Maluku. The technique of forging was jealously guarded, virtually as a cult secret; some tools were traded but only in quantities far too small to have made much impact on normal working conditions.
Throughout the rest of Melanesia and in Polynesia and Micronesia , the basic tool remained the stone blade, which was hafted as an adz or an ax and sometimes interchangeably as both. Tridacna shell was sometimes used for blades in parts of Oceania where stone was in short supply, including Micronesia and the Solomon Islands.
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Only a handful of these axes have been found in Britain and they are thought to be imports from north-eastern France. The term ‘palstave’ is misleading, as it comes from the Icelandic ‘Paalstab’ meaning a digging tool, not a type of axe. The term is used in British archaeology to describe an axe where there is a stop and the flanges disappear into the stop. Palstaves are also thicker below the stop. They are usually decorated on the blade and as time went on developed loops.
Palstaves can be divided into three broad groups, early, transitional and late. The small loop on the side of some palstaves would have been used to help secure the axe head to the haft more securely and a few palstaves have two loops. There are over 14 different types and variants of palstave in this broad group. Group I palstaves have a shield like decoration below the stop ridge and variable flanges. Flanges are highest at the top and should follow a straight line from stop to butt.
There is less decoration but sometimes a midrib. They are generally looped and are short and narrow with low straight flanges. The flanges only extend slightly up the butt. The stop ridge often projects above the flanges.
Belt ax or ‘tommyhawk’
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Bronze Age gold rings of a high-status person found in Wales Constanze Rassman holding one of the bronze axes found at the site. It is this that makes the finding of these axe heads such a ground-breaking discovery. Photo by Simon Burchell, Wikimedia Commons French antiquary Mahudel was the first to note that bronze items were generally found in graves and from this he proposed that discoveries of stone, bronze and iron items could be dated according to a particular sequence.
This idea was subsequently adopted by English antiquaries, notably William Borlase and the chronology had become generally accepted by the end of the eighteenth century. The Bronze Age in Britain began around 2, BC and the period is marked by the introduction of bronze tools and weapons from the European mainland. Bronze is formed from the combination of a small amount of tin around 10 percent with the remaining metal 90 percent being copper.
The Bronze Age in southern Europe began on the island of Crete which acted as a base for the export of bronze items to Europe. The first bronze weapons were crafted by the Mycenaean culture of Greece. The Mycenaeans originally came from Russia.
Looking for ID on these old axe heads.
I am wondering about the logo as all i can find for Hults Bruks logo is a circle with HB in it. This head has the circle with only the H. Did they use different logos? It could be Hultafors but they use HB circle as well.
Oct 02, · Sears made their own axes. They opened up the “‘Fulton Axe Factory at Chicago” (quoted from ‘Axe Makers of North America. Fulton was a ‘house brand’ for Sears.
Of the many wartime innovations, those in macroeconomics and management techniques were among the most important, for the rapid increase achieved in labour productivity would make possible the economic miracles of many nations after the war as well. There were several reasons for this. First, transport was slow and its capacity small. Second, the technology of agriculture was no more advanced than that of war, so that, with most of their energy devoted to feeding themselves and with little economic surplus, people had few resources available for specialized military technology.
Low economic development meant that even the benefits of conquest would not pay off a heavy investment in weaponry. Third, and most important, the absolute level of technological development was low. A heavy dependence on human muscle was the principal cause and a major effect of this low level of development. With human ingenuity bound by the constraints of the human body , both technology and tactics were heavily shaped by geography, climate, and topography.
The importance of geographic and topographic factors, along with limited means of communication and transportation, meant that separate geographic regions tended to develop unique military technologies. Such areas are called military ecospheres. The boundaries of a military ecosphere might be physical barriers, such as oceans or mountain ranges; they might also be changes in the military topography, that combination of terrain, vegetation, and man-made features that could render a particular technology or tactic effective or ineffective.
Artifacts For Sale
Need help in dating early axe head I would put the age of the piece easily in the ‘s. It is a Broad Axe. Google the name for more stuff but here is a quote from Wise Geek. Your item cleary fits the description of, “having one beveled edge and one straight.
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There being no known ground stone axeheads of Mesolithic date in Scotland, and very few indeed that have been found in post-Neolithic contexts, it is, therefore, assumed that the vast majority of these date to the Neolithic. Most of the research on axeheads and related objects has been focused on addressing the question: Much of this provenancing was by petrological thin-sectioning and the publication, in , of the IPC’s listing of petrologically-identified specimens from Scotland and the rest of Britain: Clough and Cummins marked a watershed in our understanding of the movement of material.
The former site was excavated by Mark Edmonds et al. The sourcing of flint axeheads has been more problematic, although morphology has offered clues, with the hoard of ‘mint condition’ flint axeheads and other flint objects from Auchenhoan , near Campbeltown, pointing strongly towards Co. Antrim as the source area Saville , while the presence of a handful of distinctively-shaped waisted ‘Duggleby axeheads’ and ‘Seamer adze heads’ e. Johnston unequivocally point towards Yorkshire as does the slightly earlier flint axehead found, together with a necklace of Whitby jet and amber beads, at ‘ Ardiffery ‘, Cruden, Aberdeenshire: