The Catechism Lesson by Jules-Alexis Meunier The catechism’s question-and-answer format, with a view toward the instruction of children, was a form adopted by the various Protestant confessions almost from the beginning of the Reformation. Among the first projects of the Reformation was the production of catechisms self-consciously modelled after the older traditions of Cyril of Jerusalem and Augustine. These catechisms showed special admiration for Chrysostom ‘s view of the family as a “little church”, and placed strong responsibility on every father to teach his children, in order to prevent them from coming to baptism or the Lord’s table ignorant of the doctrine under which they are expected to live as Christians. Lutheran catechisms[ edit ] Luther’s Large Catechism typifies the emphasis which the churches of the Augsburg Confession placed on the importance of knowledge and understanding of the articles of the Christian faith. Primarily intended as instruction to teachers, especially to parents, the catechism consists of a series of exhortations on the importance of each topic of the catechism. It is meant for those who have the capacity to understand, and is meant to be memorized and then repeatedly reviewed so that the Small Catechism could be taught with understanding. For example, the author stipulates in the preface:
Rathdrum Prairie Aquifer Water Quality
Hours of Administration 7: It was thought that local taxes could best be collected by a local official, who would be more responsive to the needs of the community that elected him or her. The Tax Collector serves a four year term and is elected at the same time as the President of the United States.
Additionally, CFC smuggling is not considered a significant issue, so the perceived penalties for smuggling are low. Thus, using CFCs in concert with SF6 as a tracer resolves the water dating issues due to decreased CFC concentrations.
Chlorofluorocarbons CFCs in Volcanic Emissions Abstract One of Ian Plimer’s misquotes happens to be heavily underpinned by numerous scientific measurements and practical experimentation. Although commonly regarded as not naturally occuring, halocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons CFCs do occur naturally and are emitted from volcanoes.
This applies to both the environment and the atmosphere. As a consequence, we can expect that volcanic activity has a much higher impact on ozone depletion than previously thought. In his book, a short history of planet earth, Plimer , p. However, when Plimer went on to make a similar statement, this time in Heaven and Earth: Global Warming, the Missing Science, this statement was given quite a different reception.
Although misquotes are quite common in the literature eg. The attitude that only anthropogenic CFCs affect climate is not new. Ozone depletion at mid-latitudes is caused by reactive halogens from man-made halocarbons. The stratospheric sulphate aerosol which follows large volcanic eruptions enhances multiplies this ozone depletion it has no effect on ozone without halocarbons.
Harry B. Bell III
Groundwater, Age of Groundwater, Age of The age of groundwater is defined as the time that has elapsed since the water first entered the aquifer. For example, some of the rain that falls on an area percolates trickles down through soil and rock until it reaches the water table. Once this water reaches the water table, it moves though the aquifer. The time it takes to travel to a given location, known as the groundwater age, can vary from days to thousands of years.
A special numbering system is used for fluorinated alkanes, prefixed with Freon-, R-, CFC- and HCFC-, where the rightmost value indicates the number of fluorine atoms, the next value to the left is the number of hydrogen atoms plus 1, and the next value to the left is the number of carbon atoms less one (zeroes are not stated), and the remaining atoms are chlorine.
The Emigration Tunnel is an infiltration tunnel located in Emigration Canyon. Water from the Emigration Tunnel is over 50 years old. Samples from the rest of the mountain springs and tunnels are younger, however, having ages of less than 40 years. Groundwater withdrawn from wells in the northern Salt Lake Valley is typically a mixture of water that is older than 50 years and water that is younger than 50 years old.
By determining the dissolved concentrations of several harmless gasses in the water samples, the age of the water can be determined. Two of the dissolved gas measurements are chlorofluorocarbons CFC and helium These are chlorinated and fluorinated hydrocarbons that have been used in refrigerants, aerosols, cleaning agents, fire extinguishers, and insulation foams.
The greater the concentration of gas in the atmosphere, the greater its dissolved concentration in precipitation. A CFC age is thus obtained by measuring the dissolved concentration of CFC at the discharge point, then comparing it to atmospheric concentrations in the past to determine at what time the water must have recharged.
These samples were collected from two adjacent points near the end of the right-hand more southern branch of the tunnel. They were located roughly feet into the tunnel from the entrance shaft. At each point, the water sampled was discharging into the tunnel from a fault or major fracture.
Radiocarbon dating of ground water can give indications as to when the water was groundwater age dating methods out of age is used as the reference value in sequential ae studies. Radiocarbon dating of ground water can give indications as to when the water was taken out of age is used as the reference value in sequential sampling studies. Tracing and Dating Young none of those methods were considered practical for and Schlosser, Peter,Age-dating of shallow groundwater with.
Request PDF on ResearchGate | The practicalities of using CFCs and SF6 for groundwater dating and tracing | Knowledge of groundwater residence time is important in understanding key issues in the.
Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling groundwater chemistry at an unmined, off-site, proximal analog.
The Straight Creek drainage basin, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic rock of Tertiary age as the mine site. The weathered and rugged volcanic bedrock surface is overlain by heterogeneous debris-flow deposits that interfinger with alluvial deposits near the confluence of Straight Creek and the Red River. Pyritized rock in the upper part of the drainage basin is the source of acid rock drainage pH 2.
Eleven observation wells were installed in the Straight Creek drainage basin. The wells were completed in debris-flow deposits, bedrock, and interfingering debris-flow and Red River alluvial deposits. Chemical analyses of ground water from these wells, combined with chemical analyses of surface water, water-level data, and lithologic and geophysical logs, provided information used to develop an understanding of the processes contributing to the chemistry of ground water in the Straight Creek drainage basin.
Surface- and ground-water samples were routinely collected for determination of total major cations and selected trace metals; dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, and rareearth elements; anions and alkalinity; and dissolved-iron species. Rare-earth elements were determined on selected samples only. Samples were collected for determination of dissolved organic carbon, mercury, sulfur isotopic composition 34S and 18O of sulfate , and water isotopic composition 2H and 18O during selected samplings.
Several lines of evidence indicate that surface water is the primary input to the Straight Creek ground-water system. Straight Creek streamflow and water levels in wells closest to the apex of the Straight Creek debris fan and closest to Straight Creek itself appear to respond to the same seasonal inputs. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions in Straight Creek surface water and ground water are similar, and concentrations of most dissolved constituents in most Straight Creek surfacewater and shallow debris-flow and alluvial aquifer groundwater samples correlate strongly with sulfate concentrations decrease linearly with sulfate in a downgradient direction.
Ch 60, approved July 17, , as amended July 26, Criteria for any given effect are expressed in terms of pollutant concentrations, duration of exposure and method of measurement. Such standards shall be consistent with the air quality criteria. Code , including asbestos mill tailings, control device asbestos waste, friable asbestos waste material, and bags or containers that previously contained commercial asbestos.
uncertainties concerning the application of the chlorofluorocarbon dating technique in this extensively contaminated and highly transient ground-water system. INTRODUCTION Acidic, metal-laden water has contaminated the basis of CFC and CFC concentrations. Ground-water ages were as much as 8 years younger in samples collected in
In Miscelaneous Views A chlorofluorocarbon CFC is a natural exacerbate that contains just carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, created as an unpredictable subsidiary of methane, ethane, and propane. They are additionally generally known by the Dupont brand name Freon. The most well-known agent is dichlorodifluoromethane R or Freon Numerous Cfcs have been broadly utilized as refrigerants, charges in vaporized applications , and solvents.
Since Cfcs help ozone exhaustion in the upper air, the assembling of such mixes has been eliminated under the Montreal Protocol, and they are, no doubt supplanted with different items, for example, Hfcs e. Then again, such items are comparable essentially as contaminations.
Halon General Info
Abstract Estimating intermediate water residence times a few years to a century in shallow aquifers is critical to quantifying groundwater vulnerability to nutrient loading and estimating realistic recovery timelines. While intermediate groundwater residence times are currently determined with atmospheric tracers such as chlorofluorocarbons CFCs , these analyses are costly and would benefit from other tracer approaches to compensate for the decreasing resolution of CFC methods in the 5—20 years range.
In this context, we developed a framework to assess the capacity of dissolved silica DSi to inform residence times in shallow aquifers.
contained CFC’s in excess of air-water solubility rendering them unsuitable for age dating. The highest CFC concentrations were detected immediately downgradient from areas of high septic tank density, suggesting that septic effluent is a potential source of the excess CFC’s.
He graduated from Grinnell College with a degree in chemistry. There, he met his future wife, Lorna Laurie McCleary. For graduate school, they both attended the University of Iowa , where he was awarded an M. Both were then sent to work on the Manhattan Project , first at the University of Chicago and then at Oak Ridge, Tennessee , where he encountered mass spectrometry. After a postdoctoral year at Chicago, Patterson moved with Brown to the Division of Geology later the Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences at the California Institute of Technology in , as founding members of its geochemistry program.
He and Laurie had four children. Zircons are extremely useful for dating since, when they are formed, they possess tiny imperfections of uranium inside them but no lead. Therefore, if any lead is present in the zircon, it must come from the decay of uranium. This process is known as U-Pb dating. The job of the team was to measure the concentration and isotopic compositions of the elements inside the zircon.
This use has resulted in large atmospheric releases of CFC gases over the last 50 years. Atmospheric CFC concentrations have increased due to higher usage, as well as relatively long atmospheric residence times, ranging between 44 to years. Precise CFC measurements have been conducted beginning in throughout the globe as a part of the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment, producing an excellent recorded record of global CFC concentrations.
Infiltration of meteoric water into the subsurface carries dissolved CFC gases.
General Provisions The words and phrases defined and the administrative principles presented in this regulation shall apply to all regulations, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise.
The increase in population could result in potential water quality impacts from the changing land use and urbanization. In addition, there has been an improved awareness of the interconnection of surface water and ground water along with water quality and water quantity issues. The result is increasingly complicated regulatory, political, and legal issues that not only involve municipal, county, and state agencies in Idaho but the equivalent involvement in Washington state.
In order to determine the current water quality and evaluate for the presence of any contaminants or use as a baseline for future water quality studies, DEQ completed a yearlong water quality investigation. The investigation included sampling numerous water wells completed in the RPA and along with the peripheral lakes. The sample locations can be seen below. Water Quality Analytes A number of different constituents were submitted for analysis that include major cations and anions, nitrate-nitrogen and nitrate isotopes, arsenic, uranium, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, deuterium and oxygen isotopes, along with age dating using chlorofluorocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride.
General results of the investigation indicate that the drinking water quality is very good. Nitrate-Nitrogen Nitrate-nitrogen is an indicator of water quality impacts from surface activities such as septic effluent and fertilizer application. All the water samples obtained and analyzed had concentrations well below the drinking water standards of 10 milligrams per liter. Arsenic and Uranium Other constituents such as arsenic and uranium are naturally occurring but can have elevated concentrations in the ground water if certain geochemical conditions are created through ground water pumping, injection of water for artificial recharge, or introduction of phosphorus.
The arsenic analytical results indicated concentrations were below the allowed maximum contaminant level of 10 micrograms per liter in all wells. The uranium analytical results also indicated concentrations were below the allowed maximum contaminant level of 30 micrograms per liter in all wells. CFC’s and SF6 During the past 50—60 years, different chemicals related to manufacturing processes and products have been released worldwide to the atmosphere such as isotopes of chlorofluorocarbons CFCs and sulfur hexafluoride SF6.
A Glossary of Survival and Preparedness Acronyms/Terms
Please advise Thamesweb if this link fails – thanks Horse Riding Windsor Great Park and the surrounding areas provide superb opportunities for horse riding. Permits are required to ride in the Great Park available upon application to: The Royal Windsor Website is planning to create a facsimile edition of this rare publication.
Water samples for CFC analysis are received and inventoried using the accompanying packing list or chain of custody supplied by the client. A computer worksheet listing sample name, volume or weight, syringe or ampule number, salinity, temperature, sample collection date, and date of arrival into lab, as well as client information, is generated.
Are you passionate about disaster relief, veterans services, animal rights, medical research, or another great cause supported by the CFC? Behind each chosen cause is a story, and by sharing these personal stories, we create a deeper connection with each other, participating charities, and those that benefit from our CFC contributions. Below are some sample stories to get you started. We have worked with several CFC charities to educate key people in insurance and government that many forms of mental illness are as much a physical impairment of the brain as diabetes is to the pancreas.
And that these disabilities and related illnesses should be given the same access to health care and necessary supplies as any other physical illness. Among the large CFC base of active duty and retired government civilians and military, many have family members with these disabilities. Children are our future and need the opportunity to develop into active members of society that support the common good and provide positive role models for the next generations. As a leader for 30 years in organizations working in childhood development programs, I am continuously amazed to watch these young people grow and develop into active adult community members.
My siblings and I were adults when we were told our dad had stage 4 bone cancer.